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ASC412 Social Security UITM Assignment Answer Malaysia

ASC412 Social Security is a course offered at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UITM) in Malaysia. The ASC412 course provides students with an introduction to the theory of social security, focusing on the problems that arise from occupational and economic status, as well as approaches to solving these problems through social security programs.

Throughout the course, students will explore various aspects related to social security, including its significance in ensuring the well-being and financial stability of individuals and society as a whole. The ASC412 course aims to enhance students’ understanding of the challenges faced by different occupational and economic groups in accessing social security benefits.

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Assignment Task 1 : explain the concept of social security, economic security and insecurity

Social security refers to a system of policies, programs, and measures designed to provide individuals and communities with protection and support against various social risks and uncertainties. It aims to ensure a basic level of economic well-being and stability for individuals and families, particularly during times of adversity such as unemployment, old age, disability, and other life events that may lead to financial hardship.

Economic security, on the other hand, pertains to the condition in which individuals and households have access to sufficient and stable income, resources, and opportunities to meet their basic needs and sustain a decent standard of living. It involves the availability of employment, adequate wages, access to education and healthcare, and protection against economic shocks.

Economic insecurity, in contrast, refers to the vulnerability and lack of stability individuals and households may experience due to various factors such as unemployment, underemployment, low wages, poverty, inflation, and economic downturns. It is characterized by a lack of financial resources, limited job opportunities, and difficulty in meeting basic needs, leading to a sense of instability and uncertainty regarding one’s economic well-being.

Assignment Task 2 : deduce about the major causes of economic insecurity and ways of overcoming the problems

The major causes of economic insecurity can vary depending on the specific context, but some common factors include:

  • Unemployment and underemployment: Lack of job opportunities, job loss, or working in low-paying and unstable jobs can contribute to economic insecurity.
  • Poverty and inequality: High levels of poverty and income inequality limit individuals’ access to resources and opportunities, increasing their vulnerability to economic insecurity.
  • Globalization and technological advancements: Rapid technological changes and global economic integration can lead to job displacement and create economic uncertainties for workers.
  • Lack of social safety nets: Insufficient or inadequate social security programs and safety nets can leave individuals without a safety net to rely on during times of economic hardship.

To overcome these problems, several strategies can be implemented:

  • Strengthening social safety nets: Developing comprehensive social security programs that provide income support, healthcare, and other essential services during times of need.
  • Promoting job creation and economic growth: Implementing policies that stimulate economic growth, foster entrepreneurship, and create job opportunities.
  • Enhancing education and skills training: Investing in education and training programs to equip individuals with the skills needed for the changing job market and to improve their employability.
  • Addressing income inequality: Implementing policies that reduce income disparities and promote a more equitable distribution of wealth and opportunities.
  • Supporting economic diversification: Encouraging diversification of industries and supporting the development of new sectors to reduce dependence on a single industry and create a more resilient economy.

Assignment Task 3 : analyze on the major approaches of social security program

Social security programs can be approached in various ways, depending on the specific goals and needs of a society. Some major approaches include:

  • Universal social security: This approach aims to provide social security benefits and services to all individuals, regardless of their income level or employment status. It ensures that everyone has access to a basic level of support and protection.
  • Social insurance: Under this approach, individuals contribute to a social security fund through mandatory contributions based on their income. The fund is then used to provide benefits in case of specific events such as retirement, disability, or unemployment. Social insurance programs typically require individuals to meet certain eligibility criteria.
  • Means-tested programs: These programs target individuals and households with low income or limited resources. Benefits are provided based on a means test, which assesses an individual’s or household’s financial need. Means-tested programs are designed to provide targeted assistance to those who are most in need.
  • Employer-based programs: Some social security programs are tied to employment. Employers may be required to contribute to social security funds or provide benefits such as healthcare or pension plans to their employees. This approach ensures that workers have access to certain social security benefits through their employment.

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Assignment Task 4 : explain on the financing of social security programs

The financing of social security programs can be achieved through various mechanisms:

  • Payroll taxes: One common method is through mandatory payroll taxes. Both employees and employers contribute a certain percentage of the employee’s wages to a social security fund. These funds are then used to finance the benefits and services provided by the social security program.
  • Government general revenue: In some cases, social security programs are financed through general government revenue. This means that funds for social security benefits and services are derived from overall government revenue, which may come from taxes, fees, or other sources.
  • Contributions from self-employed individuals: Self-employed individuals may be required to make contributions to the social security program based on their income. This ensures that individuals who are not employed by a company also contribute to the social security fund.
  • Investment income: Social security funds may also generate income through investments. The funds collected are invested in various financial instruments such as bonds, stocks, or real estate. The returns on these investments contribute to the financing of social security programs.

It is important to note that the specific financing mechanisms can vary across countries and depend on the design and structure of each social security program.

Assignment Task 5 : describe and conclude about occupational health and safety

Occupational health and safety refer to the efforts and measures taken to ensure the physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in the workplace. It involves identifying, assessing, and addressing workplace hazards and risks to prevent accidents, injuries, and adverse health effects.

Occupational health focuses on promoting and maintaining the physical and mental well-being of workers by addressing issues such as workplace ergonomics, exposure to hazardous substances, noise control, and the provision of health services.

Occupational safety, on the other hand, emphasizes the prevention of accidents and injuries in the workplace. It involves implementing safety protocols, providing safety training, maintaining equipment, and ensuring compliance with safety regulations.

Efforts to improve occupational health and safety are crucial for protecting workers’ rights, improving productivity, and reducing the economic and social costs associated with workplace accidents and illnesses.

In conclusion, social security and economic security aim to provide individuals and communities with protection and support against social risks and economic uncertainties. Economic insecurity, on the other hand, represents the vulnerability and lack of stability individuals and households may face due to various factors. Overcoming economic insecurity requires strategies such as strengthening social safety nets, promoting job creation, addressing income inequality, and supporting education and skills training. Social security programs can be approached through universal social security, social insurance, means-tested programs, or employer-based programs. The financing of social security programs can be achieved through payroll taxes, government revenue, contributions from self-employed individuals, and investment income. Occupational health and safety are essential for ensuring the well-being and safety of workers in the workplace, and efforts should be made to prevent workplace hazards and promote a healthy and safe working environment.

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