BMS412 General Genetics UITM Assignment Sample Malaysia
This genetics course at UITM focuses on fundamental concepts in genetics, including Mendelian genetics, chromosomal inheritance, modified Mendelian ratios, chromosome mapping, linkage, gene and chromosomal mutations, and recombination. Students will develop a strong understanding of genetics vocabulary and inheritance rules. Through critical thinking skills, they will analyze genetic data, determine modes of inheritance, and construct genetic diagrams.
The course uses a combination of lectures and active learning methods, including self and peer discussions. During designated lecture sessions, students will discuss genetic crosses and their relation to existing laws. Assessment methods include traditional paper examinations, tests, quizzes, assignments, and laboratory reports.
Overall, BMS412 General Genetics equips students with essential knowledge and analytical skills in genetics, laying the groundwork for further exploration in the field.
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Assignment Task 1 : Describe the chromosomal theory of inheritance and basic population genetics
The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance:
The chromosomal theory of inheritance is a fundamental concept in genetics that was proposed by Thomas Hunt Morgan and his colleagues in the early 20th century. This theory established a connection between Mendelian genetics and the behavior of chromosomes during cell division. The main points of the chromosomal theory of inheritance are as follows:
- Genes are located on chromosomes: Genes, the units of heredity, are carried on chromosomes found in the cell nucleus. Chromosomes are long thread-like structures that contain DNA, the genetic material.
- Homologous chromosomes: Organisms inherit two sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. These chromosomes occur in pairs called homologous chromosomes. One member of each pair is inherited from the mother, and the other from the father.
- Alleles: Homologous chromosomes carry different forms of a gene, known as alleles, at the same position. Alleles can be dominant or recessive, and they determine an individual’s traits.
- Chromosome segregation and independent assortment: During meiosis, the process of cell division that produces gametes (sperm and eggs), homologous chromosomes segregate randomly, and alleles on different chromosomes assort independently of each other. This leads to genetic variation in the offspring.
Basic Population Genetics:
Population genetics is the study of genetic variation within and between populations and how it changes over time. Some key concepts in population genetics include:
- Gene Pool: The total collection of genes and alleles within a population is called the gene pool. It represents the genetic diversity of the population.
- Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: The Hardy-Weinberg principle describes the theoretical distribution of alleles in a non-evolving population. It states that allele frequencies will remain constant from generation to generation if certain conditions are met (large population size, random mating, no migration, no mutation, and no selection).
- Genetic Drift: Genetic drift refers to random fluctuations in allele frequencies in a population due to chance events. It is more pronounced in small populations and can lead to the loss or fixation of certain alleles.
- Gene Flow: Gene flow is the movement of alleles between populations through the migration and interbreeding of individuals. It can increase genetic diversity within a population.
- Natural Selection: Natural selection is the process by which certain traits become more or less common in a population based on their fitness and adaptability to the environment. It leads to the evolution of populations over time.
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Assignment Task 2 : Explain the core concepts of Mendelian inheritance and apply them to predict the outcomes of crosses
Mendelian inheritance is based on the principles of heredity proposed by Gregor Mendel in the 19th century. The core concepts of Mendelian inheritance are:
- Dominant and Recessive Alleles: For a specific gene, an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent. If one allele (dominant) masks the effect of the other allele (recessive), the dominant trait will be expressed in the phenotype, while the recessive trait will only be visible if both alleles are recessive.
- Law of Segregation: Mendel’s first law states that during gamete formation (meiosis), the two alleles for a gene separate, with each gamete receiving only one allele. This ensures that each offspring receives one allele from each parent.
- Law of Independent Assortment: Mendel’s second law states that alleles for different genes segregate independently during gamete formation. This means that the inheritance of one gene does not influence the inheritance of another gene, resulting in various combinations of alleles in the offspring.
Predicting Cross Outcomes:
To predict the outcomes of genetic crosses, we can use Punnett squares. A Punnett square is a simple graphical tool that helps visualize the possible genotypes of offspring based on the genotypes of the parents. Here’s a step-by-step process:
- Identify the parental genotypes: Determine the genotypes of the two parents for the trait under consideration. For example, if we’re looking at flower color, one parent might be homozygous dominant (AA) for the dominant color, while the other parent is heterozygous (Aa).
- Set up the Punnett square: Create a 2×2 grid (4 boxes) and label the rows and columns with the alleles from each parent.
- Fill in the squares: Place one allele from each parent in each box, following the row and column labels. This represents the possible combinations of alleles in the offspring.
- Determine genotypes and phenotypes: Analyze the Punnett square to find the genotypes and phenotypes of the potential offspring. Homozygous dominant individuals will show the dominant trait, heterozygous individuals will also exhibit the dominant trait, but carriers of the recessive allele, and homozygous recessive individuals will display the recessive trait.
Assignment Task 3 : Compare results of genetic crosses with predicted ratios and evaluate significance of deviations using simple statistical analysis
When performing genetic crosses, the actual outcomes may deviate from the predicted ratios due to chance. To evaluate the significance of these deviations, we can use simple statistical analysis and the chi-square test.
- Set up the null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (Ha): The null hypothesis assumes that any deviation between the observed and expected ratios is due to chance alone, while the alternative hypothesis suggests that there is a significant difference between the observed and expected ratios, indicating a potential relationship between the genotype and phenotype.
- Calculate the expected ratios: Use Mendelian principles to predict the expected ratios of genotypes or phenotypes in the offspring.
- Conduct the chi-square test: Compare the observed frequencies (counts) of each genotype or phenotype with the expected frequencies using the chi-square formula:
χ² = Σ [(Observed – Expected)² / Expected]
- Determine the degrees of freedom (df): Degrees of freedom are calculated as the number of categories (genotypes or phenotypes) minus 1.
- Find the critical value: Consult a chi-square table or use statistical software to find the critical value for the chosen significance level (e.g., α = 0.05) and degrees of freedom.
- Compare the calculated chi-square value with the critical value: If the calculated chi-square value is greater than the critical value, the null hypothesis is rejected, suggesting that the deviation is significant. If the calculated value is less than the critical value, the null hypothesis cannot be rejected, indicating that the deviation is likely due to chance
Assignment Task 4 : Perform experiments to collect and analyse genetic data, and present the results in an oral presentation.
To perform experiments on genetic crosses, you’ll need to:
- Select the traits of interest: Choose specific traits to study, such as flower color, seed shape, or eye color.
- Choose the organisms: Select appropriate organisms that exhibit the traits you want to study. These could be plants, animals, or microorganisms.
- Design the crosses: Plan the breeding experiments by selecting parent individuals with known genotypes and mating them to observe the traits’ inheritance in the offspring.
- Collect data: Record the phenotypes of the offspring after the crosses are performed.
- Analyze the data: Use the observed data to calculate the ratios of different genotypes or phenotypes.
- Predict outcomes: Apply Mendelian principles to predict the expected ratios based on the genotypes of the parents.
- Perform statistical analysis: Compare the observed and expected ratios using the chi-square test to evaluate the significance of deviations.
- Prepare the oral presentation: Organize your findings, methods, and statistical analysis into a clear and concise presentation. Use visuals like graphs, tables, and Punnett squares to illustrate your results.
- Highlight conclusions: Discuss the outcomes of the genetic crosses and the significance of any deviations from expected ratios. Interpret the results and draw conclusions about the inheritance patterns observed.
- Practice the presentation: Rehearse your oral presentation to ensure clarity, coherence, and proper time management.
Remember to use appropriate scientific language and terminology throughout your assignments and presentation. Good luck!
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