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BMS545 Immunology UITM Assignment Answer Malaysia

The BMS545 Immunology course at UITM (Universiti Teknologi MARA) Malaysia provides a comprehensive understanding of the body’s immune system. It covers the fundamental concepts of innate and adaptive immune responses, exploring the various components involved and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of antigen recognition and host response to antigens in both innate and adaptive immunity. The significance and principles of immunization are also discussed.

 Additionally, the BMS545 course emphasizes the application of immunological techniques in disease diagnosis and the quantification of antigens and antibodies. Students gain valuable insights into the functioning and importance of the immune system and its practical applications in healthcare.

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Assignment Task 1 : Explain the different terminologies used in immunology, the functions of the various components of the immune system

Immunology Terminologies:

  • Immune System: The immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend the body against infections and foreign invaders. 
  • Antigen: An antigen is any foreign substance that can elicit an immune response. It is recognized by the immune system as non-self and triggers the production of antibodies or activates immune cells.
  • Antibody: Also known as immunoglobulins, antibodies are proteins produced by B cells in response to antigens. They bind to specific antigens, neutralizing them and marking them for destruction by other immune cells.
  •  B Cells: B cells are a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. They play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response. 
  •  T Cells: T cells are another type of white blood cell that play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. We can directly kill infected cells or coordinate immune responses.
  •  Immunization: The process of inducing immunity to a specific disease by administering vaccines containing weakened or inactivated forms of pathogens or their antigens.
  •  Vaccination: The act of receiving a vaccine to develop immunity against a particular disease.
  • Immunosuppression: The deliberate suppression of the immune system, often used to prevent organ rejection after transplantation or in autoimmune disease treatment.
  • Autoimmunity: An immune response where the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells and tissues, causing autoimmune diseases.
  •  Immune Response: The coordinated set of reactions by the immune system to fight against pathogens or other foreign substances.

Functions of the Immune System Components:

  • Macrophages: These are phagocytic cells that engulf and digest pathogens. They also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, initiating adaptive immune responses. 
  • Neutrophils: These are the most abundant type of white blood cells that help in the early defense against bacterial infections through phagocytosis.
  • Natural Killer (NK) Cells: NK cells are part of the innate immune system and can kill infected or cancerous cells directly.
  •  B Cells: B cells produce antibodies that bind to specific antigens, neutralizing pathogens and aiding in their elimination. 
  • T Cells: T cells are of various types, including helper T cells (Th), cytotoxic T cells (Tc), and regulatory T cells (Treg). They are involved in cell-mediated immunity, helping other immune cells, killing infected cells, and regulating the immune response.
  • Complement System: A group of proteins that circulate in the blood and, when activated, can enhance the immune response by promoting inflammation, opsonization, and cell lysis. 
  • Lymphocytes: A type of white blood cell that includes B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells, responsible for adaptive immune responses.
  •  Immunoglobulins (Ig): These are antibodies produced by B cells in response to antigens. There are different classes of immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, IgD), each with specific functions in the immune response.

Assignment Task 2 : Distinguish between innate and adaptive immunity; humoral and cell mediated immunity and their mechanisms of action.

Innate Immunity:

  • Innate immunity is the first line of defense against pathogens and is present from birth.
  • It provides immediate, non-specific responses to a wide range of pathogens.
  • Components include physical barriers (skin, mucous membranes), chemical barriers (enzymes, acids), phagocytic cells (macrophages, neutrophils), and natural killer (NK) cells.
  • Innate immunity does not produce memory; the response to a particular pathogen remains the same upon subsequent encounters.

Adaptive Immunity:

  • Adaptive immunity is a more specialized and sophisticated immune response that develops after exposure to specific pathogens or antigens.
  • It is characterized by specificity and memory.
  • Components include B cells and T cells, which are lymphocytes responsible for recognizing and targeting specific antigens.
  • Upon encountering an antigen, B cells differentiate into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while T cells can differentiate into helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, or regulatory T cells.

Humoral Immunity:

  • Humoral immunity is a component of adaptive immunity and is mediated by B cells and antibodies.
  • When B cells encounter antigens, they differentiate into plasma cells that produce and release antibodies specific to the encountered antigen.
  • Antibodies circulate in the blood and bodily fluids, neutralizing pathogens and marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Cell-Mediated Immunity:

  • Cell-mediated immunity is another component of adaptive immunity, primarily involving T cells.
  • T cells are activated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages, which display antigens on their surface.
  • Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) can directly kill infected cells, while helper T cells (Th) help coordinate immune responses and regulate the activity of other immune cells.

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Assignment Task 3 : Determine suitable immunological technique(s) to be used in disease diagnosis and quantification of antigens and antibodies

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA):

  • ELISA is a widely used technique to detect and quantify specific antigens or antibodies in a sample.
  • It utilizes antibodies that are linked to an enzyme and can produce a color change when they bind to the target antigen or antibody.
  • ELISA is valuable in diagnosing infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergies.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR):

  • PCR is a technique used to amplify specific DNA sequences, including those from pathogens.
  • In immunology, PCR can be used to detect and quantify pathogens like viruses or bacteria in clinical samples.

Flow Cytometry:

  • Flow cytometry is a technique that measures physical and chemical characteristics of individual cells or particles in a fluid suspension.
  • It can be used to analyze different types of immune cells, detect surface markers, and assess their functional properties.

Western Blotting:

  • Western blotting is used to detect specific proteins, including antibodies, in a sample.
  • It is commonly used in research and diagnosis to identify antibodies against certain pathogens or detect specific antigens.

Assignment Task 4 : Conduct laboratory experiments in immunology.

Unfortunately, as an AI language model, I cannot conduct physical laboratory experiments. However, I can provide you with some examples of laboratory experiments commonly performed in immunology:

  • ELISA Assay: Perform an ELISA to quantify the presence of a specific antigen or antibody in a patient’s blood sample, indicating exposure to a particular pathogen or disease.
  • Cell Culture and Stimulation: Isolate immune cells from blood samples and culture them under specific conditions to study their response to different stimuli or antigens.
  • Lymphocyte Proliferation Assay: Assess the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in response to antigens or mitogens, providing information about the functional capacity of the immune system.
  • Cytotoxicity Assay: Evaluate the cytotoxic activity of T cells or NK cells against target cells infected with a pathogen or tumor cells.

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