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Chm556 Organic Chemistry II Assignment Answer, UITM, Malaysia

We are here to provide the assignment solution for Chm556 Organic Chemistry II at UITM, Malaysia. In this course, we continue the study of organic chemistry, focusing on the use of infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine organic molecule structures. The Chm556 course delves into the chemistry and physical properties of carbonyl-containing compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and their derivatives. 

We also explore reactions involving enolate anions as nucleophiles. Our primary emphasis is on developing problem-solving skills related to the structure, synthesis, and mechanisms of carbonyl compounds. Additionally, the course covers amine chemistry and offers an overview of carbohydrates. You can gain insight into our assignment solutions through our samples provided in English.

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Assignment Brief 1: Interpret the structural features of organic compounds using Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy.

In the field of organic chemistry, the determination of a compound’s structure is a fundamental and crucial aspect of research and analysis. Two powerful techniques for achieving this are Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. These methods provide complementary information, allowing for the detailed interpretation of the structural features of organic compounds. In this assignment, we will delve into the principles and applications of these two spectroscopic techniques to elucidate the structures of organic compounds.

  1. Infrared Spectroscopy:

Infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive analytical technique that measures the absorption of infrared radiation by a molecule. This absorption is related to the vibrational motions of the atoms within the molecule. Several key points in interpreting IR spectra include:

  • Functional Groups Identification: IR spectra reveal characteristic absorption peaks for specific functional groups. For example, the presence of a carbonyl group (C=O) in a compound can be deduced from the absorption peak around 1700-1750 cm⁻¹.
  • Fingerprint Region: The fingerprint region of an IR spectrum (500-1500 cm⁻¹) provides unique patterns for each compound, offering additional identification and structural information.
  • Intensity and Position of Peaks: The intensity of absorption peaks and their positions are directly related to the bond strengths and the masses of the atoms involved. Therefore, analyzing the IR spectra can yield information about the types of bonds present in the compound.
  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy:

NMR spectroscopy, on the other hand, is a technique used to study the nuclear properties of atoms within a molecule. It provides valuable structural information, especially about the connectivity of atoms and their environments. Key aspects of NMR interpretation include:

  • Chemical Shifts: NMR spectra display chemical shifts in parts per million (ppm), reflecting the local electronic environment of specific nuclei. Different functional groups and atom types have characteristic chemical shift values.
  • Integration: The area under each peak in an NMR spectrum, when compared to the area of other peaks, provides information about the ratio of different types of atoms within the molecule.
  • Spin-Spin Coupling: Multiplicity in NMR spectra results from spin-spin coupling. This phenomenon is influenced by the number of adjacent nuclei, allowing for the determination of the connectivity of atoms in the compound.
  1. Combining IR and NMR Spectroscopy:

The combined interpretation of IR and NMR spectra can be particularly powerful in elucidating the structure of organic compounds. While IR spectroscopy provides information about functional groups and specific bond types, NMR spectroscopy gives insights into the connectivity and arrangement of atoms within the molecule. Therefore, the structural features of an organic compound can be thoroughly understood by integrating information from both techniques.

In summary, Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy are essential tools in organic chemistry for interpreting the structural features of organic compounds. IR spectra provide information about functional groups and bond types, while NMR spectra reveal the connectivity of atoms within the molecule. The complementary nature of these techniques makes them invaluable in structural analysis, allowing researchers to confidently deduce the arrangement and composition of organic compounds.

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Assignment Brief 2: Solve problems related to the reaction mechanisms for nucleophilic addition of carbonyl compounds and nucleophilic acyl substitution of carboxylic acids and their derivatives.

This assignment is designed to enhance your understanding of the reaction mechanisms related to nucleophilic addition of carbonyl compounds and nucleophilic acyl substitution of carboxylic acids and their derivatives. You will be presented with problems related to these important reactions in organic chemistry.


Nucleophilic Addition of Carbonyl Compounds:

  • Explain the mechanism of nucleophilic addition to carbonyl compounds, such as aldehydes and ketones.
  • Identify and describe the key intermediates and transition states involved in this reaction.
  • Solve problems related to the regioselectivity and stereoselectivity of nucleophilic additions to carbonyl compounds.

Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives:

  • Describe the reaction mechanism for nucleophilic acyl substitution, including the roles of nucleophiles and leaving groups.
  • Analyze the factors that influence the rate of acyl substitution reactions.
  • Solve problems related to the reactivity of different carboxylic acid derivatives (e.g., acid chlorides, esters, and amides) in acyl substitution reactions.


  1. Provide detailed explanations and equations for the reaction mechanisms in question.
  2. Use appropriate chemical structures and arrows to illustrate the key steps in the mechanisms.
  3. Address any stereochemical considerations if relevant.
  4. Offer clear and concise solutions to the assigned problems.

This assignment will test your grasp of the theoretical foundations of these reactions and your ability to apply them to solve problems.

Assignment Brief 3: Construct synthetic routes for the interconversion of various types of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, carboxylic acid derivatives and amines.

In this assignment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in organic synthesis by constructing synthetic routes for the interconversion of various types of organic compounds. You will design pathways to transform aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, carboxylic acid derivatives, and amines, showcasing your knowledge of important chemical reactions and strategies in organic chemistry.


Interconversion of Aldehydes and Ketones:

  • Develop a synthetic route to convert an aldehyde into a ketone and vice versa. Use specific reagents and reaction conditions.
  • Provide a step-by-step mechanism for the key transformation steps.

Transformation of Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives:

  • Design a synthetic route to interconvert a carboxylic acid into its corresponding ester and vice versa.
  • Propose methods for converting carboxylic acids into acid chlorides and amides, and vice versa.
  • Specify the reagents and reaction conditions for each transformation, and outline any necessary protection and deprotection steps.

Conversion of Amines:

  • Construct synthetic routes to convert primary amines into secondary amines and secondary amines into tertiary amines.
  • Provide specific details about reagents and conditions for each conversion.
  • Include any steps for the preparation of appropriate intermediates if necessary.


  • Ensure that your synthetic routes are logical and efficient, employing well-established reactions in organic chemistry.
  • Clearly outline the starting materials, reagents, and conditions for each step.
  • If any protection or deprotection steps are required, specify them in your route.
  • Include chemical equations and mechanisms where applicable.
  • Provide explanations for the choices of reagents and conditions.
  • Address stereochemistry if relevant.

This assignment assesses your ability to plan and execute multi-step organic syntheses, taking into account the reactivity and functional group transformations of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, carboxylic acid derivatives, and amines.

Assignment Brief 4: Conduct experiments in organic chemistry.

In this assignment, you will engage in practical laboratory work to gain first-hand experience with various organic chemistry experiments. This hands-on experience will provide valuable insight into the practical aspects of the discipline.


  1. Selection of Experiments:

Choose two organic chemistry experiments from a list provided by your instructor or your laboratory manual. Ensure that the selected experiments are feasible and align with your course objectives.

  1. Preparation and Execution:
  • Prepare a detailed plan for each experiment, including a list of required reagents, apparatus, and safety precautions.
  • Conduct the experiments according to your plans, following laboratory safety guidelines.
  1. Data Collection:
  • Record all observations, measurements, and any unexpected results during the experiments.
  • Document any changes in color, state, or other properties of the substances involved.
  1. Data Analysis:
  • Interpret the data collected during the experiments.
  • Compare your results to the expected outcomes and theoretical concepts.

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