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CBE531 Microbiology And Cell Biology UITM Assignment Answer Malaysia

The CBE531 Microbiology and Cell Biology course at UITM Malaysia provides an introductory overview of microbiology. It covers various essential topics such as microbial taxonomy, the influence of microbes on the biosphere, microbial cell biology including morphology, growth, and metabolism, genetics, molecular biology, microbial ecology, and interactions of microbes with humans. Students will gain familiarity with key themes in microbiology, ranging from its historical background to the latest scientific developments.

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Assignment Task 1 :Describe the diverse microorganisms group according to their physiological characteristics and their role in the evolution of life on earth.

Microorganisms are diverse and ubiquitous forms of life that play crucial roles in the evolution of life on Earth.We can be categorized into several groups based on their physiological characteristics:

  • Bacteria: Bacteria are single-celled prokaryotic organisms that can survive in various environments. They are essential for nutrient cycling, nitrogen fixation, and some can even be pathogenic causing diseases. Bacteria have had a significant impact on shaping the Earth’s atmosphere through the production of oxygen during photosynthesis by cyanobacteria, leading to the evolution of aerobic organisms.
  • Archaea: Archaea are also single-celled prokaryotes, but they differ from bacteria in their cell structure and biochemistry. Many archaea thrive in extreme environments like hot springs, acidic environments, and high salinity. Their study has provided valuable insights into the early conditions of Earth and the possibility of life in extreme environments.
  • Fungi: Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms that include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. They play vital roles in decomposition, nutrient recycling, and symbiotic relationships with plants. The evolution of mycorrhizal associations with plants has been critical for the colonization of land by plants.
  • Protists: Protists are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms, including protozoa and algae. Some protists are photosynthetic, contributing significantly to the production of oxygen and the base of aquatic food chains. Others are important in consuming bacteria and detritus, maintaining ecological balance.
  • Viruses: Viruses are unique entities that are not classified within traditional biological kingdoms. They are obligate parasites and can infect all forms of life. While some viruses can cause diseases, others play a crucial role in horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of organisms.

Role in the Evolution of Life on Earth:

  • Origin of Life: Microorganisms are believed to be some of the earliest life forms on Earth. The study of extremophiles, particularly archaea, has provided insights into the conditions under which life might have originated and evolved.
  • Oxygenation of the Atmosphere: Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, were instrumental in producing oxygen through photosynthesis, dramatically altering the Earth’s early atmosphere. This oxygenation paved the way for the evolution of aerobic organisms.
  • Symbiosis and Co-evolution: Microorganisms have engaged in various symbiotic relationships with plants, animals, and other microorganisms throughout Earth’s history. These symbioses have influenced the evolution of both partners and have played critical roles in shaping ecosystems.
  • Genetic Diversity and Horizontal Gene Transfer: Microorganisms, particularly viruses, have played a significant role in horizontal gene transfer between different species. This process has contributed to genetic diversity and the evolution of new traits.

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Assignment Task 2 : Differentiate the mechanism and metabolite of microbial in bioproduct development.

Mechanism of Microbes in Bioproduct Development:

  • Fermentation: Microorganisms, such as bacteria and yeast, are used in fermentation processes to convert organic compounds into valuable bioproducts like ethanol, lactic acid, and citric acid. Fermentation is an anaerobic process that has been harnessed for centuries in food and beverage production.
  • Enzyme Production: Microbes are capable of producing various enzymes that can catalyze specific chemical reactions. These enzymes are essential in bioproduct development, such as in the production of biofuels, bio-based chemicals, and pharmaceuticals.
  • Biodegradation: Certain microorganisms have the ability to break down complex organic compounds into simpler forms. Biodegradation is utilized in waste management and bioremediation, where microbes help clean up environmental pollutants and hazardous substances.

Metabolites of Microbes in Bioproduct Development:

  • Biofuels: Microorganisms are used in the production of biofuels like biodiesel and bioethanol. Bacteria and yeast can ferment sugars from biomass feedstocks, such as sugarcane, corn, or algae, into bioethanol, a renewable fuel source. Similarly, microbial lipid production can yield biodiesel.
  • Biopolymers: Microorganisms can synthesize biopolymers like polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and polylactic acid (PLA). These biopolymers are biodegradable and can replace conventional plastics in various applications, reducing environmental impact.
  • Antibiotics and Pharmaceuticals: Microbes have been a rich source of antibiotics and other pharmaceutical compounds. Penicillin, one of the first antibiotics discovered, is produced by the fungus Penicillium. Many important drugs are derived from microbial metabolites or engineered using biotechnology.

Assignment Task 3 : Develop a basic industrial design in bioproduct development using microbiology concept and principle

Industrial Design: Production of Bioethanol from Cellulosic Biomass

Concept and Principle:

The concept is to develop a sustainable and efficient process for the production of bioethanol from cellulosic biomass using microbial fermentation.

Principle Steps:

  • Pretreatment: Cellulosic biomass, such as agricultural residues or forestry waste, undergoes pretreatment to break down the complex lignocellulosic structure. This step enhances the accessibility of cellulose and hemicellulose to enzymatic hydrolysis.
  • Enzymatic Hydrolysis: Enzymes produced by microbial sources, such as fungi or bacteria, are used to hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars, primarily glucose and xylose.
  • Microbial Fermentation: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast species capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose, is used as the fermenting microorganism. The yeast converts the sugars into ethanol through anaerobic fermentation.
  • Distillation and Purification: After fermentation, the ethanol-rich broth undergoes distillation to separate and concentrate the ethanol. Further purification steps remove impurities to obtain high-purity bioethanol.
  • Co-product Utilization: By-products from the process, such as lignin and leftover cellulosic material, can be used for biogas production or as feedstock for other value-added processes.

Benefits:

  • Utilization of Cellulosic Biomass: The process utilizes abundant and non-food cellulosic biomass, reducing competition with food crops and promoting sustainable practices.
  • Greenhouse Gas Reduction: Bioethanol produced from cellulosic biomass offers significant greenhouse gas emissions reduction compared to fossil fuels.
  • Waste Valorization: By converting agricultural and forestry waste into bioethanol, the process contributes to waste valorization and environmental sustainability.
  • Renewable Energy Source: Bioethanol is a renewable energy source, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and promoting energy security.

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