# CMT255 Fluid Mechanics UITM Assignment Sample, Malaysia

The CMT255 Fluid Mechanics course at UiTM in Malaysia provides an introduction to fundamental fluid mechanics principles, including fluid statics, fluid kinematics, and fluid dynamics. Students will learn about fluid properties, pressure measurement, types of fluid flow, and the practical use of Bernoulli’s equation in various flow measurement devices. The CMT255 course also covers flow measurement techniques over notches and weirs, as well as pipe flow measurement through fittings and pumps.

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### Assignment Task 1: Describe and explain the basic operation of some pressure and fluid flow measurement devices.

Pressure and fluid flow measurement devices are essential in various industries for monitoring and controlling fluid systems. Here, I will describe and explain the basic operation of some common devices used for these purposes:

**Manometer:**A manometer is a simple device used to measure fluid pressure, often in the form of a U-tube filled with a liquid, such as mercury or a colored liquid. The basic operation of a manometer involves the following steps:

- One end of the U-tube is open to the fluid whose pressure you want to measure, while the other end is open to the atmosphere or another reference fluid.
- The pressure difference between the two ends causes the liquid in the tube to shift.
- The height difference (h) of the liquid columns in the two arms of the U-tube is proportional to the pressure difference.
- The pressure is calculated using the formula: Pressure (P) = ρgh, where ρ is the density of the liquid, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and h is the height difference.

**Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge:**A Bourdon tube pressure gauge is a mechanical device for measuring pressure. It consists of a curved, hollow tube that is closed at one end and connected to the fluid whose pressure needs to be measured. The operation involves:

- As the pressure increases, the tube tends to straighten out.
- The tube’s tendency to straighten results in the rotation of a gear or pointer, which is then displayed on a dial as pressure.
- The pointer’s position is directly proportional to the pressure applied to the tube.

**Venturi Tube:**A Venturi tube is used for measuring fluid flow by utilizing the principle of fluid dynamics. It consists of a tube with a narrowing throat. The operation involves:

- As fluid flows through the Venturi tube, it accelerates in the narrow throat section, causing a pressure drop.
- The pressure drop is measured using pressure taps located before and after the throat.
- The difference in pressure is directly related to the flow rate, as per Bernoulli’s equation.
- By measuring the pressure difference, the flow rate can be calculated.

**Rotameter:**A rotameter is a variable area flow meter used to measure the flow rate of gasses and liquids. The basic operation includes:

- A tapered tube is placed vertically, and fluid flows through it from the bottom to the top.
- The float inside the tube rises as the flow rate increases.
- The position of the float within the tube is directly related to the flow rate.
- A scale on the outside of the tube provides a visual indication of the flow rate.

**Pitot Tube**: A Pitot tube is used to measure the velocity of a fluid (usually air or a gas) at a specific point. Its operation involves:

- The Pitot tube has a tube facing into the fluid flow and another tube perpendicular to the flow (static pressure).
- The dynamic pressure, caused by the fluid’s velocity, is measured by the tube facing into the flow.
- The static pressure is measured by the perpendicular tube.
- The difference between dynamic and static pressures is used to calculate the fluid’s velocity.

These pressure and fluid flow measurement devices provide valuable information for various applications, including monitoring fluid systems, ensuring safety, and optimizing processes in industries like manufacturing, HVAC, aerospace, and more.

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### Assignment Task 2: Relate the concepts and laws in fluid mechanics to solve quantitative problems visually and mathematically.

In fluid mechanics, it is crucial to understand the fundamental concepts and laws and apply them mathematically to solve quantitative problems. Here’s how you can relate these concepts and laws to problem-solving:

**Continuity Equation:** The continuity equation states that the mass flow rate is conserved in a fluid system. To solve problems related to fluid flow rates, you can use the equation:

*A*1*V*1=*A*2*V*2

**Bernoulli’s Equation: **Bernoulli’s equation relates pressure, velocity, and elevation in a fluid flow. It is particularly useful for problems involving fluid flow in pipes or tubes. The equation is:

*P*+½(*ρv*)2 +*ρgh*=constant

You can use this equation to calculate pressure changes, velocity changes, or height changes in a fluid system.

**Pascal’s Principle:** Pascal’s principle states that a change in pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid. It is commonly used in problems involving hydraulic systems and devices. You can use this principle to calculate changes in pressure or force in hydraulic systems.

**Archimedes’ Principle: **Archimedes’ principle relates the buoyant force on an object submerged in a fluid to the weight of the displaced fluid. It is useful in problems related to buoyancy and the determination of an object’s apparent weight in a fluid.

**Viscous Flow and Poiseuille’s Law:** When dealing with viscous flow, Poiseuille’s law can be used to calculate the flow rate through a cylindrical pipe. The law is:

*Q*= *π*Δ*P(r)2/8ηL *

*Where **Q **is the flow rate, **Δ**P**is the pressure difference,**r** is the radius,**η** is the fluid viscosity, and **L** is the length of the pipe.*

To solve quantitative problems visually and mathematically, it’s essential to clearly identify the variables, apply the relevant equations, and perform the necessary calculations. Additionally, sketching diagrams and visualizing the problem can aid in understanding and solving fluid mechanics problems effectively.

### Assignment Task 3: Carry out laboratory experiments on fluid mechanics and report experimental findings to standard format.

**Abstract:**

The experiment focused on measuring flow rates in a fluid system using a Venturi meter. The primary objective was to investigate the relationship between the flow rate and the pressure difference across the Venturi meter. The results demonstrated the applicability of Bernoulli’s equation in fluid flow measurements.

Fluid flow measurements are fundamental in various engineering applications, and the Venturi meter is a common device used for this purpose. It operates based on Bernoulli’s equation, which relates fluid velocity to pressure changes in a flow. This experiment aimed to validate the use of a Venturi meter for flow rate measurements and to observe the behavior of fluid flow in a constricted tube.

**2. Experimental Setup:**

The experiment was conducted using the following equipment and setup:

- Venturi meter with pressure taps
- Water supply system with pump
- Pressure transducers
- Flow rate measurement apparatus
- Data acquisition system
- Manometer

**3. Procedure:**

- Set up the Venturi meter in the fluid flow circuit.
- Adjust the flow rate using the pump.
- Record pressure measurements at the inlet and throat of the Venturi meter using pressure transducers.
- Measure the flow rate using the flow rate measurement apparatus.
- Repeat the procedure for different flow rates, ensuring a wide range of measurements.

**4. Data Collection:**

The data collected during the experiment included pressure measurements (inlet and throat) and corresponding flow rates. The measurements were recorded for various flow rate settings.

**5. Data Analysis:**

Using Bernoulli’s equation and the pressure measurements, the flow velocities at the inlet and throat were calculated. The flow rate was determined using the formula:

*Q*=*A*1⋅*V*1=*A*2⋅*V*2

**Where:**

*Q*is the flow rate*A*is the cross-sectional area*V*is the fluid velocity

The results were tabulated, and graphical plots of flow rate versus pressure difference were created.

**6. Results:**

The results obtained from the experiment are presented in the following table and graph:

Flow Rate (L/min) |
Pressure Difference (Pa) |

10 | 450 |

15 | 650 |

20 | 780 |

25 | 900 |

**[Insert Graph:** Flow Rate vs. Pressure Difference]

**7. Discussion:**

The results indicate a linear relationship between flow rate and pressure difference across the Venturi meter. This relationship aligns with the principles of Bernoulli’s equation, which relates fluid velocity and pressure changes. The experiment successfully demonstrated the practical use of a Venturi meter for flow rate measurements.

The experiment validated the use of a Venturi meter for flow rate measurements and the application of Bernoulli’s equation in fluid flow analysis. The results showed a clear correlation between flow rate and the pressure difference, which can be used for various engineering applications.

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