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BIO616 Principles Of Neurobiology Principles UITM Assignment sample Malaysia

The course BIO616 Principles of Neurobiology at UITM (University Teknologi MARA) in Malaysia provides students with a comprehensive introduction to the field of neurobiology. It covers various essential principles starting from general and functional neuroanatomy, cellular morphology, and cellular neurophysiology to biochemistry. The course also delves into systems and cognitive neurobiology.

Specific topics will include the chemistry, physiology, and pharmacology of neurotransmitters and receptors, with a particular focus on the vertebrate nervous system, especially mammals. Active student participation through class discussions, in-class assignments, and dedicated time for homework will play a crucial role in the learning process.

Overall, this course aims to equip students with a solid foundation in neurobiology, exploring the complexities of the nervous system and its functioning in living organisms.

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Assignment Brief 1 : Explain the fundamental principles and functions of the nervous system.

Overview of the Nervous System

The nervous system is a complex network of cells and structures that play a crucial role in regulating and coordinating various functions within the human body. It can be divided into two main components: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

  1. Central Nervous System (CNS)

The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the control center of the nervous system, responsible for processing and interpreting sensory information, initiating voluntary movements, and regulating cognitive processes, emotions, and behavior. The spinal cord acts as a communication pathway between the brain and the rest of the body. It also coordinates reflex responses to certain stimuli, bypassing the brain’s involvement for rapid reactions.

  1. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

The PNS consists of nerves and ganglia that extend from the CNS to the rest of the body. It is divided into the somatic nervous system (SNS) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The SNS controls voluntary movements and relays sensory information from the sensory organs to the CNS. The ANS controls involuntary functions, such as heart rate, digestion, and respiratory rate, and can be further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, responsible for the “fight or flight” response and “rest and digest” response, respectively.

Functions of the Nervous System

  • Sensory Function: The nervous system receives and processes sensory information from various external and internal stimuli through sensory receptors.
  • Integrative Function: The CNS integrates and interprets sensory information, making decisions and sending appropriate responses.
  • Motor Function: The nervous system sends motor commands to muscles and glands, resulting in voluntary and involuntary movements and secretions.
  • Homeostasis: The nervous system helps maintain internal stability by regulating body temperature, blood pressure, and other vital functions.
  • Cognitive and Emotional Functions: It plays a role in memory, learning, problem-solving, and emotions, influencing our behavior and responses to different situations.

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Assignment Brief 2 : Design experiments to address basic questions regarding electrical and chemical neurotransmission to test specific neurobiological hypotheses.

Experiment 1: Investigating Electrical Neurotransmission

Hypothesis: Electrical signals are vital for transmitting information between neurons.


  • Obtain two neurons or neuron-like cells in a controlled laboratory setting.
  • Create a microelectrode setup to record electrical activity.
  • Stimulate the presynaptic neuron with a brief electrical pulse.
  • Record the postsynaptic response using the microelectrode.
  • Repeat the experiment multiple times, varying the stimulation intensity and frequency.
  • Analyze the data to determine the relationship between the presynaptic stimulation and postsynaptic response.

Experiment 2: Studying Chemical Neurotransmission

Hypothesis: Chemical neurotransmitters are essential for communication between neurons.


  • Prepare two interconnected neurons or neuron-like cells in a culture dish.
  • Administer a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye to the presynaptic neuron.
  • Stimulate the presynaptic neuron with an electrical impulse.
  • Monitor changes in calcium levels using fluorescence microscopy, which indicates neurotransmitter release.
  • Observe the postsynaptic response in the target neuron through electrophysiological recordings or calcium imaging.
  • Block specific neurotransmitter receptors with antagonists to assess their role in the communication process.

Assignment Brief 3 : Describe some of the current techniques used to advance the field of neurobiology based on the critical reading of papers in the scientific literature.


This technique involves genetically modifying neurons to express light-sensitive proteins. Researchers can then selectively stimulate or inhibit specific neural circuits using light pulses, allowing for precise control over neuronal activity and investigating their functions.

fMRI (Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging):

fMRI measures changes in blood flow in the brain, which is closely related to neural activity. It is used to study brain regions involved in various tasks and cognitive processes, providing insights into brain function and connectivity.

Patch-Clamp Electrophysiology:

This method allows researchers to directly record electrical activity from individual neurons. It is invaluable for studying ion channels, synaptic transmission, and neural network dynamics with high temporal resolution.

CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing:

This revolutionary technique enables precise genetic modifications in neurons, allowing researchers to study the effects of specific gene mutations on neuronal function and behavior.

Single-Cell RNA Sequencing:

By analyzing the transcriptome of individual neurons, researchers can identify unique gene expression patterns, classify cell types, and explore cellular diversity in the nervous system.

Two-Photon Microscopy:

This imaging technique provides high-resolution, deep-tissue visualization of neural structures and activities, making it ideal for studying neuronal processes in intact brain tissue.


This emerging field aims to map the complete neural connections (synaptic wiring) in the brain, providing essential insights into neural circuits and their roles in behavior and cognition.

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