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PHT412 Functional Anatomy UITM Assignment Answer Malaysia

PHT412 Functional Anatomy is a course offered at Universiti Teknologi MARA (UITM) in Malaysia. This course serves as a foundation for physiotherapeutic practices, equipping students with the necessary skills to palpate and analyze human body structures and movements. The syllabus integrates the principles of anatomy and biomechanics, enabling students to apply their knowledge in analyzing and understanding the movements involved in daily functions.

By the end of this course, students will have a solid foundation in functional anatomy, enabling them to apply their knowledge and skills in physiotherapeutic practices. This course serves as a crucial step towards becoming proficient in assessing and treating patients by understanding the underlying anatomical structures and movements.

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Assignment Task 1: Explain the concepts of osteokinematic and arthrokinematic of the joints, plane of motions in human body.

The concepts of osteokinematics and arthrokinematics are essential to understanding joint movement and the planes of motion in the human body.

Osteokinematics refers to the movement of bones in relation to each other during joint motion. It involves the gross movements of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction. These movements occur in specific planes of motion, which are imaginary planes that pass through the body and are used as reference points for movement analysis.

The three primary planes of motion are:

  1. Sagittal Plane: This plane divides the body into left and right halves and allows movement in a forward and backward direction. Movements in the sagittal plane include flexion (bending a joint), extension (straightening a joint), and hyperextension (extending a joint beyond its anatomical position).
  2. Frontal Plane: This plane divides the body into front and back halves and allows movement from side to side. Movements in the frontal plane include abduction (moving away from the body’s midline), adduction (moving towards the body’s midline), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and eversion (turning the sole of the foot outward) and inversion (turning the sole of the foot inward).
  3. Transverse Plane: This plane divides the body into upper and lower halves and allows rotational movements. Movements in the transverse plane include internal rotation (rotating towards the body’s midline), external rotation (rotating away from the body’s midline), horizontal abduction (moving the arm away from the midline in a horizontal plane), and horizontal adduction (moving the arm towards the midline in a horizontal plane).

Arthrokinematics, on the other hand, focuses on the movements occurring within the joint itself. It involves the study of joint surfaces, joint congruency, and the specific motions that occur between joint surfaces during movement. Arthrokinematic movements are often described as roll, slide, and spin.

  • Roll: A rolling motion occurs when one joint surface rolls on another, like a tire rolling on the road.
  • Slide (also called glide or translation): A sliding motion occurs when one joint surface slides or glides over another, similar to a hockey puck sliding on ice.
  • Spin: A spinning motion occurs when one joint surface rotates around another, like a top spinning on a table.

Understanding both osteokinematics and arthrokinematics is crucial in evaluating joint function, identifying joint pathologies, and designing appropriate therapeutic interventions for rehabilitation or injury prevention.

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Assignment Task 2: Analyse the joint movements, mechanics and pathomechanics of muscle actions in upper and lower extremities, head, and axial body in human.

Analyzing joint movements, mechanics, and pathomechanics of muscle actions in different parts of the human body provides insight into how muscles contribute to functional movements, as well as potential causes of movement dysfunction or injury. Let’s explore the upper and lower extremities, head, and axial body.

Upper Extremities:

  • Shoulder Joint: The shoulder joint allows for a wide range of movements, including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation, and circumduction. Pathomechanics can occur due to muscle imbalances, instability, or trauma, leading to conditions such as shoulder impingement or rotator cuff tears.
  • Elbow Joint: The elbow joint enables flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation. Injuries or pathomechanics can include conditions like tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis) or golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylitis).

Lower Extremities:

  • Hip Joint: The hip joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation, and circumduction. Muscle imbalances or structural abnormalities can contribute to pathomechanics such as hip labral tears or femoroacetabular impingement.
  • Knee Joint: The knee joint primarily performs flexion and extension, with some rotation during functional movements. Pathomechanics can involve ligamentous injuries (e.g., anterior cruciate ligament tears), meniscal tears, or patellofemoral syndrome.


  • Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ): The TMJ facilitates movements such as opening and closing the mouth, side-to-side movements (lateral excursion), and protrusion and retraction. Pathomechanics in this joint can lead to temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) characterized by pain, clicking, or limited jaw movement.

Axial Body:

  • Spinal Joints: The spinal column consists of several joints, including the intervertebral joints. Movements include flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation. Pathomechanics can involve conditions like herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or facet joint dysfunction.

Analyzing joint movements, mechanics, and pathomechanics helps in diagnosing and treating various musculoskeletal conditions, improving movement patterns, and developing targeted rehabilitation programs.

Assignment Task 3: Display competency in palpation techniques of bony landmarks, joints, muscles, and other soft tissues in human body

Displaying competency in palpation techniques of bony landmarks, joints, muscles, and other soft tissues is crucial for healthcare professionals such as physical therapists, massage therapists, and sports medicine practitioners. Palpation allows for the assessment of anatomical structures and can provide valuable information about tissue quality, tenderness, and abnormalities. Here are some key palpation techniques for different areas of the human body:

  • Bony Landmarks: Palpating bony landmarks involves using the fingertips to identify prominent bones under the skin’s surface. Examples include the spinous processes of the vertebrae, the acromion process of the shoulder, or the medial and lateral malleoli of the ankle.
  • Joints: Palpating joints involves assessing the joint line and surrounding structures for tenderness, swelling, or abnormalities. Examples include palpating the knee joint line or feeling for joint effusion (swelling) in the ankle.
  • Muscles: Palpating muscles helps evaluate muscle tone, trigger points, or muscle abnormalities. Techniques can include gentle compression, deep friction, or stretching of the muscle belly. For example, palpating the biceps brachii muscle in the upper arm or the gastrocnemius muscle in the calf.
  • Soft Tissues: Palpating soft tissues involves assessing the quality and texture of structures such as tendons, ligaments, and fascia. Examples include palpating the Achilles tendon, assessing the tension in the iliotibial band (IT band), or evaluating the suppleness of the plantar fascia in the foot.

When performing palpation, it is important to maintain a relaxed and sensitive touch, adjusting the pressure and depth of palpation based on the individual’s comfort level. Palpation techniques should always be performed with clear communication, respect for the individual’s privacy and comfort, and adherence to professional guidelines and ethics.

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