AAR452 Ancient Civilisation And Western Architecture UITM Assignment Answer, Malaysia
This course, AAR452 Ancient Civilisation and Western Architecture at UiTM in Malaysia, comprises two components. Component I delves into the history of architecture, tracing its evolution from the rudimentary shelters of early civilizations. It highlights key figures and their architectural achievements from ancient civilizations. Component II focuses on the development of Western architecture, spanning from classical Greek and Roman periods to the early 20th century. The course explores major buildings and structures, emphasizing architectural design principles and distinct characteristics for each era.
We are here to provide you with assignment solutions for AAR452 Ancient Civilisation and Western Architecture at UiTM, Malaysia. This course offers a comprehensive exploration of architectural history, from ancient civilizations to Western architecture’s evolution. By studying prominent architects and their works, you’ll gain insights into the progression of architectural design and key historical periods.
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Assignment Activity 1: Explain the development in chronological order of the western architectural civilization.
The development of Western architectural civilization spans thousands of years and has gone through various distinct periods and styles. Here is a chronological overview:
Ancient Greece (c. 9th century BCE – 1st century BCE):
- Greek architecture was characterized by simple, elegant, and harmonious designs.
- Key architectural elements included the use of columns (Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian), entablatures, and pediments.
- Famous examples include the Parthenon in Athens and the Temple of Hera in Olympia.
Ancient Rome (c. 1st century BCE – 5th century CE):
- Roman architecture adopted and expanded upon Greek principles.
- Arch and vault construction was a significant innovation, leading to the development of aqueducts, amphitheaters (like the Colosseum), and basilicas.
- Romanesque architecture emerged in the late Roman period, characterized by thick walls, small windows, and barrel vaults.
Byzantine (c. 4th century CE – 15th century CE):
- Byzantine architecture was noted for its use of domes, particularly in churches like the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
- Complex geometric designs and mosaics were common.
Medieval (c. 5th century – 15th century):
- The Medieval period saw the development of Gothic architecture, characterized by pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses, as seen in cathedrals like Chartres and Notre-Dame.
- Castles, fortifications, and monastic architecture were also prominent during this period.
Renaissance (c. 14th century – 17th century):
- The Renaissance brought a return to classical Greek and Roman architectural principles.
- Prominent architects like Andrea Palladio and Filippo Brunelleschi designed buildings with symmetry, proportion, and the use of the classical orders.
- This era also saw the development of perspective in painting and the use of linear and aerial perspective in architectural drawings.
Baroque (c. 17th century – 18th century):
- Baroque architecture was characterized by grandeur, dynamic designs, and dramatic use of light and shadow.
- Elaborate ornamentation and the use of curves and ellipses were common features.
- Examples include the Palace of Versailles and St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.
Neoclassical (late 18th century – 19th century):
- Neoclassical architecture continued the classical revival, drawing inspiration from ancient Greek and Roman architecture.
- Symmetry, columns, and pediments were key elements.
- Prominent buildings include the U.S. Capitol and the British Museum.
19th and 20th Century (c. 19th century – 20th century):
- The 19th and 20th centuries witnessed diverse architectural movements, including Gothic Revival, Art Nouveau, Art Deco, Modernism, and Postmodernism.
- Modernism emphasized simplicity, functionalism, and the use of new materials and technologies.
- Postmodernism embraced historical references and eclecticism.
Contemporary (late 20th century – present):
- Contemporary architecture encompasses a wide range of styles and approaches.
- Sustainability, innovation, and adaptability to changing social and environmental needs are central concerns.
- Iconic buildings, such as the Burj Khalifa and the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, reflect the architectural diversity of this period.
The development of Western architectural civilization is marked by an evolution from the simplicity of ancient Greek designs to the complexity and diversity of contemporary architecture, with each period influenced by historical, cultural, and technological factors.
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Assignment Activity 2: Discuss the architecture and its profession in relation to the development of civilized cultures.
Architecture and its profession have played a crucial role in the development of civilized cultures throughout history. Here’s a discussion of this relationship:
Shaping Cultural Identity:
- Architecture reflects the cultural identity and values of a society. The design of buildings, from homes to religious structures, often incorporates cultural symbolism, materials, and construction techniques.
- For example, the intricate carvings on Hindu temples in India or the use of wood and paper in traditional Japanese architecture are deeply rooted in cultural traditions.
- Architecture serves as a record of a culture’s history and evolution. Historic buildings and structures tell stories of the past, preserving the heritage of civilizations.
- Organizations like UNESCO work to protect and preserve culturally significant architectural sites, such as the historic city of Venice or the Pyramids of Egypt.
Functional and Aesthetic Design:
- Architecture is not just about aesthetics; it also addresses the functional needs of a society. Different climates, social structures, and lifestyles have led to diverse architectural solutions.
- The design of ancient Roman aqueducts, with their precise engineering, demonstrates how architecture met the practical needs of providing water to urban populations.
Cultural Exchange and Fusion:
- Through the movement of people and ideas, architectural styles and techniques have often merged, resulting in unique, hybrid designs.
- The Silk Road, for example, facilitated the exchange of architectural knowledge between the East and the West, leading to the construction of buildings like the Great Mosque of Xi’an, which blends Islamic and Chinese architectural elements.
Religious and Spiritual Significance:
- Many of the world’s most iconic architectural structures are religious, reflecting the spiritual beliefs and practices of a culture. Cathedrals, mosques, and temples are not only places of worship but also symbols of faith and devotion.
- The construction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (now Istanbul) as both a cathedral and later a mosque illustrates the religious transformations and cultural influences that architecture can encompass.
Economic and Social Development:
- Architecture is closely tied to economic and social progress. The construction of public buildings, infrastructure, and urban planning have been catalysts for development.
- Projects like the construction of the modern Parisian boulevards by Georges-Eugene Haussmann in the mid-19th century exemplify how architecture and urban planning can shape and modernize cities.
Innovations and Technological Advancements:
- Architectural progress often drives technological innovation. Advancements in construction materials and methods have been spurred by the need to create grander and more sustainable structures.
- The development of steel-framed skyscrapers in the late 19th century, like the Home Insurance Building in Chicago, revolutionized city skylines and the construction industry.
- In recent years, the architectural profession has increasingly focused on sustainable and eco-friendly design. The design and construction of buildings now consider energy efficiency, use of renewable materials, and minimizing environmental impact.
- Concepts like green building and LEED certification have become integral to modern architectural practice.
In summary, architecture and its profession have been intimately entwined with the development of civilized cultures. Architecture reflects the values, history, and identity of a society, while also contributing to its functionality, progress, and preservation. The relationship between architecture and culture is dynamic, continually evolving to meet the changing needs and aspirations of societies throughout history.
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